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An Anthropology of the Street, Senri Ethnological Reports vol.80 and vol.81

、December 12, 2010

An Anthropology of the Street
Contents
An Anthropology of the Street Vol.1 (Senri Ethnological Reports 80)
【Contents】
Preface
SEKINE, Yasumasa

Introductory Section: The Aim and the Range of Street Anthropology
Introduction
SEKINE, Yasumasa
Chapter 1 On the basis of “Street Anthropology”: From Pollution to Urban Footpaths
SEKINE, Yasumasa
Chapter 2 Advocating the Potential of Street Anthropology
SEKINE, Yasumasa
Chapter 3 Comments on the Advocacy of Street Anthropology from the Perspective of Locality and Mannerization
NOMURA, Masaichi

Part One: A Quest for Methods of Street Ethnography
[How to be Receptive to the Urban Unconscious: Effects of Allegory]
Chapter 4 Flânerie and Traces on the Street: On the Technique of Reading Urban Memories
CHIKAMORI, Taka’aki
Chapter 5 The Urban Unconscious Seen from the Street and the Project of Psychoanalysis of Cities
MINAMI, Hirofumi
[Changes in Approaches to the Urban Street: Between the view from above and the view from below]
Chapter 6 A Review of Street Studies in Spatial Theory: Focusing on the Way of Seeing the City in Urban Geography
KATŌ, Masahiro
Chapter 7 Towards Actualizing the Street: Critical Reflections on the Time-geography of Disciplinary-control society
KATŌ, Masahiro

Part Two: The Practices of Writing Street Ethnography Now
Section One The Viewpoint of Power and the Viewpoint of the Street at Cross-purposes
[The Living Street Society of Homeless People]
Chapter 8 Contesting the Streets: Shelter-Resistant Homeless Men and Encampments in Japan, America and Britain
GILL, Tom
Chapter 9 Women Living on the Street: Everyday lives of Homeless Women
MARUYAMA, Satomi
[The Street as a Vanishing Point of the Value of Progress: Hope without Hope]
Chapter 10 Searching for the Potentiality of “Loitering on the Way”, as seen in Twan Yang’s “Houseboy in India”
ISODA, Kazuhide
Chapter 11 Country Men on the City Street: Timorese Waste Collectors and their Hopes
MORITA, Yoshinari
[Body Reflecting Social Environment: Implicit Space for Contestation]
Chapter 12 Bodies Shaped by the Streets: The ‘Poverty Space’ in Santiago, Chile
NAITO, Junko
Chapter 13 The Streets as an Arena: Those who Arm Themselves with Makeup and Hide Themselves with Makeup
TAMAKI, Yasuko
Section Two Living Force Generated from Streets: Habitus and Bricolage
[The Street as a Contested Arena: Managing Resources of Culture and Religion]
Chapter 14 A Sacred Path to Divine Otherness: the Hindu Goddess Bahuchara and Hijras as her Devotees
KUNIHIRO, Akiko
Chapter 15 Sacralization of the Urban Footpath, with Special Ref¬erence to Pavement Shrines in Chennai City, South India
SEKINE, Yasumasa
[Styles of Knowledge and Violence found in City Streets: Toward Generative Commonality]
Chapter 16 Producing Meanings in the Street: the Semantics of Street Culture in Abidjan
SUZUKI, Hiroyuki
Chapter 17 From Street Slang to a Linguistic Tool of Propaganda: The ‘Street-ness’ of the Sheng Language
KOMMA, Toru
Chapter 18 The Street and Collective Violence: With Special Reference to Post-election Violence in Kenya 2007-2008
MATSUDA, Motoji

An Anthropology of the Street Vol.2 (Senri Ethnological Reports 81)
【Contents】
Part Three: Historical Perspectives on Street and Translocality
Section One Reconsidering Placeness Today from the Viewpoint of History and Memory
[Historical Changes of Concepts of Street: Relativization of Modernity]
Chapter 19 The Relationship between Community and Street viewed Historically: the Case of Hakata
TAKEZAWA, Shōichirō
Chapter 20 The Street as a Changing Social Arena in Medieval Europe
KLEINSCHMIDT, Harald
Chapter 21 On a Little Bridge in Beijing: The Global History of the Street Corner
SEO, Tatsuhiko
[Changes of Local Placeness and Contestation among Plural Viewpoints: Between Memory and Present Reality]
Chapter 22 Wholesale Markets Past and Present: a Case Study of the Transition of ‘Placeness’ in a Local Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products in Nagaoka City
SUZUKI, Shinsuke
Chapter 23 The Street as Contested Space for Emerging Locality: A Case Study of Tree Ceremonies in Southern Germany
YAMADA, Kaori
Chapter 24 The Conflict over Seascapes in the Torres Strait, Australia: Between Aboriginal People’s Sense of Place and the Authorities’ Sense of Legitimacy
MATSUMOTO, Hiroyuki
Chapter 25 Street and Stream: Some Notes Towards a Study of Street Phenomena in Polynesia
TANAHASHI, Satoshi
Section Two Transnational Flow and Recombinant Generation of Locality
[Locality and Street-ness Constructed among Immigrants’ Social Spaces]
Chapter 26 Construction of “Recombinant Locality” as a ‘Lived place’ among South Asian Migrants in Hawaii: Bricolage between Packaging (Capital) and De-packaging (Resources)
SEKINE, Yasumasa
Chapter 27 From Chinatown to Global City: The Papua New Guinean Chinese Experience of Streets in Rabaul, Port Moresby and Sydney
ICHIKAWA, Tetsu
Chapter 28 “Ethnic Town” and Street: The Case of “Cambodia Town” in Los Angeles County
ASAHI, Yumiko
Chapter 29 Streets Connected to the Place of Daily Life: Café Life among Tunisians in Paris
UEMURA, Sayaka
[Locality and Street-ness in the Post-Socialist Environment]
Chapter 30 The Post-Socialist Street: The New Urban Transformation in Ulaanbaatar City, Mongolia
NISHIGAKI, Yu
Chapter 31 A Sub-culture Becoming High-cultural? Popular Music and Street Culture in Post-socialist Mongolia
SHIMAMURA, Ippei

Concluding Section: Towards “Living Space”
[The Generation of “Living Space” in/against Neo-liberalism]
Chapter 32 Some Preliminary Thoughts on the Street as Viewed from “Hinterland Theory”
ABE, Toshiharu
Chapter 33 Reclaiming the Streets as Spaces of Everyday Life
ODA, Makoto
Chapter 34 Conclusions: For the Theory and Practice of a Critical Ethnography of “Street Anthropology”
SEKINE, Yasumasa

The Collection of Abstracts
An Anthropology of the Street Vol.1 (Senri Ethnological Reports 80)

Chapter 1
On the basis of “Street Anthropology”: From pollution to urban footpaths
SEKINE, Yasumasa (Japan Women’s University)
This chapter starts by describing the conceptual trajectory that took me from my original theory of ritual pollution in an Indian context to my present concern with urban streets, especially the sidewalks where all kinds of social, cultural and economic activities are taking place in Indian megacities. I found a common theoretical perspective penetrating both phenomena, namely the entangled co-existence of centripetal and de-centripetal viewpoints. In pollution theory the latter viewpoint of “pollution” holding a positive and generative sense should be distinguished from the former viewpoint of “impurity” embodying negative connotations. Similarly, the street is a contested arena where the weaker section of people living on sidewalks are surviving by resisting the dominant social force and at the same time appropriating its properties. In this sense, my pollution theory provides the basis for formulating “Street Anthropology.”

Chapter 2
Advocating the Potential of Street Anthropology
SEKINE, Yasumasa (Japan Women’s University)
This project on Anthropology of the Street has explored new themes and methodologies for anthropology by focusing on ‘street’ phenomena in contemporary society – a society marked by increasing fluidity driven by the ‘reflexive modernization’ associated with neo-liberalism and transnationalism. Challenging the constraints of the control society at its periphery, and flouting that society’s home orientation, street phenomena are doubly repressed and hidden. The first task, therefore, was to clarify what street phenomena are and where they are taking place. Having excavated the genealogies of street phenomena, the second task was to compile systematic ethnographies, taking into due account the power relationship between the centre and the periphery. By rereading the ‘peripheral’ as the ‘liminal,’ we have sought a new horizon for anthropology that will offer resistance to the overwhelming neo-liberal tendency.

Chapter 3
Comments on the Advocacy of Street Anthropology from the Perspective of Locality and Mannerization
NOMURA, Masaichi (Graduate University for Advanced Studies)
[The abstract is not available but the full text of this chapter is found in the next section of Collections of Field Research Reports]

Chapter 4
Flânerie and Traces on the Street: On the Technique of Reading Urban Memories
CHIKAMORI, Taka’aki (Japan Women’s University)
This paper is an attempt to enquire into the theoretical meanings of the flâneur’s experience of ‘intoxication’, which appears in Walter Benjamin’s texts on the city, with reference to the concept of ‘trace.’ Flânerie as a condition of intoxication can be seen as an experience of touching the deeper level of urban memories. In order to elucidate the theoretical meanings of the experience, the paper follows two lines of Benjamin’s thought in detail. One is the line of linguistic philosophy, along which are related key themes of the image that contain similarities as well as the mimetic faculty, and the other line is the theory of memory that include topics such as Proustian involuntary memories and Freudian psychoanalysis. After pointing out that the concept of ‘trace’ can be located at the intersection of the two lines, the experience of the flâneur in intoxication is reconstructed as an act of recollecting the forgotten past, which is achieved in the course of collecting traces on the street and reading mimetically riddles encoded in the distortion of such traces. It is concluded that we can derive theoretical suggestions from Benjamin’s flâneur in intoxication, whose act consists of three moments of ‘reading’, ‘recollecting’ and ‘getting lost’, as well as concerning how to see and be on the street, that is, the epistemology and ontology of the street.

Chapter 5
The Urban Unconscious Seen from the Street and the Project of Psychoanalysis of Cities
MINAMI, Hirofumi (Kyushu University Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies)
What kind of a place is the street? What are the modalities of transaction between walkers and streets? I pose these questions as an environmental psychologist who is interested in merging depth psychology and environmental psychology through field studies aimed at the “Psychoanalysis of Cities.” My search for the urban unconscious looks at urban renewal in a district of Hiroshima, street vendors in Asian cities, and the fruits of street strolling coupled with psychoanalytic sessions by the author in the city of New York after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Benjamin’s concept of the ‘flaneur’ was incorporated as a methodological means for acting out the unconscious transactions between urban strollers and the unconscious environment, through the medium of street photography. The photographic images taken were considered as constituting self-presentation of the city and physiognomic image building of the dream seen by the city, working rather like the free-association method in psychoanalysis.

Chapter 6
A Review of Street Studies in Spatial Theory: Focusing on the Way of Seeing the City in Urban Geography
KATŌ, Masahiro (Ritsumeikan University)
This article identifies a number of studies deeply related to the idea of ‘the streets’ from among major urban theory discussions, analyzes their references, mutual influences, and contemporaneousness, and seeks to tie them together genealogically to constitute an alternative urban geography. Having a deep relationship to the idea of ‘the streets’ here does not necessarily mean that they treat ‘the streets’ as their object of study, but rather indicates a totality of practice discussing and portraying the city on the basis of experience of spaces ‘on the streets’ and the ‘sense of place.’ Among these, special attention is paid to Walter Benjamin, Michel de Certeau, the Situationists, David Harvey, and the Los Angeles school of urbanism. By grafting together arguments that are wound around the spatial imagination in the era of globalization, such as the theoretical scheme of tactics and strategy (de Certeau), the production of space (Henri Lefebvre), the geographical imagination (Harvey), cognitive mapping (Frederic Jameson), the global or progressive sense of place (Doreen Massey), and situated knowledge (Donna Haraway), a vista of possibilities is opened up for a theory of urban studies that takes its origin from experiences that have been lived on ‘the streets.’

Chapter 7
Towards Actualizing the Street: Critical Reflections on the Time-geography of Disciplinary-control society
KATŌ, Masahiro (Ritsumeikan University)
This paper attempts to elucidate characteristics of the movement from a ‘disciplinary society’ to a ‘control society’ from the viewpoint of time-geography. Time-geography is a conceptual and analytical framework first proposed by the Swedish geographer Torsten Hagerstrand, and is characterized by its ability to map the time and space of human behavior regardless of scale. It also considers behavioral patterns by looking at the various elements which constrain human behavior and their spatial nature. In this paper, utilizing the concept of ‘domain’ which is a part of that spatial nature, I will try to make clear the social and spatial transformation (including the process of subjectification) that has arisen in the movement from a disciplinary society to a control society. And finally, positing ‘the streets’ as an opening gap in the control society, I will also consider the creation of the ‘outside’ or of ‘events’ which elude control.

Chapter 8
Contesting the Streets: Shelter-Resistant Homeless Men and Encampments in Japan, America and Britain
GILL, Tom (Meiji Gakuin University)
The streets, as Sekine observes, are contested space. According to context that contest can take many forms, but this paper deals with a particularly literal form of street contestation: that which occurs between homeless people and other players in the urban environment – mainstream society and the city authorities. Using case studies from Japan, the U.S.A. and Britain, this paper studies individual and collective responses to the challenges of living on the streets – broadly defined to include other public spaces – in 21st century industrialized cities. Homeless people are often portrayed as passive victims of modern urban society. In fact they show a range of strategies in their frequent encounters with the authorities, ranging from reluctant accommodation to active resistance.

Chapter 9
Women Living on the Street: Everyday lives of Homeless Women
MARUYAMA Satomi (Ritsumeikan University)
Many researchers working on the homeless in Japan have challenged the stereotypical view that they are deviant and need rehabilitating, emphasizing homeless people’s subjectivity by stressing their resistance to the mainstream and their work activities. This approach, however, assumes that they are adhere to another stereotypical norm – that of the independent working man. This paper focuses on the everyday lives of homeless women, which are very different from those of homeless men. Mostly they do unpaid work even on the street, obliging them to be economically dependent on others. The decision on whether to continue life on the street or to quit rough sleeping also depends on others, to whom they feel responsible for caring. A focus on homeless women opens up fresh analytical possibilities. We see their experiences on the street as intertwined with those of others, which is rather different from presuming a modern subjectivity. Rather, they emerge as individuals who have the will to choose their own life outcomes. My paper will also address the positionality of researchers who go looking for signs of resistance in the lives of homeless people.

Chapter 10
Searching for the Potentiality of “Loitering on the Way”, as seen in Twan Yang’s “Houseboy in India”
ISODA, Kazuhide (Seijo University, Institute of Folklore Studies)
A standpoint that criticizes modernity in terms of its obsession with efficiency and speed is sometimes described as “loitering on the way” (michikusa o kuu in Japanese) because it makes people relaxed and allows them to regain their dynamism . Loitering, however, is a subordinate act: you loiter on the way to somewhere you have to go at someone’s command, or at your own inner command. You cannot loiter “on the way” if you aim at loitering itself. In that sense, loitering on the way is a practice done in the space of the other (de Certeau), not a right to be retained. Reading Houseboy in India, the autobiography of Twan Yang, who was born to a Tibetan mother and Chinese father, became an orphan and survived as a houseboy in British India, I argue that loitering on the way is an everyday practice done in the space of the other, not a subjective act. On that basis I seek to ascertain the potentiality of this act.
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Chapter 11
Country Men on the City Street: Timorese Waste Collectors and their Hopes
MORITA, Yoshinari (Osaka University Graduate School of Human Sciences)
In Kupang, the main city of West Timor island, eastern Indonesia, male laborers from the underdeveloped mountainous hinterlands engage in waste collecting labor as a means of obtaining cash income. These people are called “Ana Botol” (children of bottles). Their villages are connected to the city of Kupang by a trunk road, along which they make frequent trips. In Kupang, these Ana Botol often enthusiastically talk about travelling further, to new places – travels which have yet to be realized. In fact, having moved to an unfamiliar urban environment, Ana Botol find a host of new places and objectives on which to focus their hopes. In this paper, I look at some of the scenes from their daily life in order to discuss the Ana Botol notion of hope as it is projected on the streets of Kupang. In doing so, I clarify that their hopes continue to be narrated as such precisely because of their uncertain realizability.

Chapter 12
Bodies Shaped by the Streets: The ‘Poverty Space’ in Santiago, Chile
NAITO, Junko (Japan Society of the promotion of science / Japan Women’s University)
A slum is not only a home to poor people, but also an environment which embodies the habitus of poverty and is in turn shaped by this body. Because this cycle cultivates and strengthens physical and sensory attributes as well as values adapted to impoverished living conditions, the slum appears closed, static, and cohesive. This paper, however, uses a study of urban poverty in Chile to treat slums as ‘impoverished mother ships,’ constructing a fluid, dynamic ethnography of poverty in the modern world. With advancing globalization, the numbers of the poor in cities are increasing, and they are beginning to wander through sight-seeing areas and wealthy residential districts which are not their homes, in search of resources. We can envision them as tentacles extending across the city from the mother ship. They pick up various resources – from food, to scraps for recycling, to artifacts of popular culture, and even ideas for miscellaneous jobs – sift through them, bring them back to the mother ship, arrange them as they please, and incorporate them into their lives. This paper re-evaluates the obvious raw diversity and complication of their living environment, that is, the context in which they live and their umwelt, focusing on bodies shaped by the streets and re-asking the ‘poverty question.’

Chapter 13
The Streets as an Arena: Those who Arm Themselves with Makeup and Hide Themselves with Makeup
TAMAKI, Yasuko (Osaka Shoin Women’s University)
On the street everyone hates makeup and regards their makeup as a problem. But for makeup enthusiasts, the street is a stage to showcase their own style of cosmetics as well as clothing. The street then becomes an arena of competition. Usagi Nakamura, who is always battling without knowing the outcome, once said “If I always feel uncomfortable in the street, I feel like a white crow when I exit the arena.” As long as the street remains an arena she can continue living. However, not everyone can live like this. In the street-arena, many people use makeup as camouflage to hide their scars and survive. They use this camouflage to hide themselves and disappear into the crowd. Makeup is used as a cloak of invisibility for their existence, and it becomes their way of life.

Chapter 14
A Sacred Path to Divine Otherness: the Hindu Goddess Bahuchara and Hijras as her Devotees
KUNIHIRO, Akiko (Gunma Prefectural Women’s University)
This paper focuses on a place that is sacred to the Hindu goddess Bahuchara, and to her devotees known as hijras. The temple of Bahuchara is located in the northern part of Gujarat state in India. Every full-moon day, thousands of people make pilgrimages to that temple, where inevitably they come across Bahuchara’s devotees, hijras. Hijras are men who have sacrificed their masculinity to the goddess through the ritual of emasculation, and at the temple they practice religious rites that can confer blessings on the pilgrim. Hijras are regarded as neither men nor women; in other words, they cannot play parts in generating their own genealogies. As such, they are usually considered as social deviants at the worldly sphere. At the Hindu temple of Bahuchara, however, hijras are never driven away to the margins. Those who are in need of the divine power of Bahuchara implore the hijras to make channels to the goddess so that their prayer may be heard by the goddess. In short, at the sacred place of the Hindu goddess Bahuchara, hijras are no longer peripheral others, but rather are on the conceptual border between the sacred and the profane.


Chapter 15
Sacralization of the Urban Footpath, with Special Ref¬erence to Pavement Shrines in Chennai City, South India
SEKINE, Yasumasa (Japan Women’s University)
With regard to urban footpaths, there are two actors with different interests, the municipal authorities who, in theory, pursue town plan¬ning and maintain footpaths for the convenience of pedestrians, and the poor homeless living illegally on footpaths with the constant fear of being forced to leave. There exists a clear difference in stand-point between authorities and pavement dwellers on the use of footpaths: the former has a power to keep the public space free from encroach¬ment but the latter finds the footpaths a space advantageous for living. The discussion focuses on pavement shrines that have become more ubiquitous in Chennai city, South India, since the 1990s and are mostly built and maintained by the socially and economically weaker sec¬tions of the city population. Footpath shrines may have and represent a power of resistance against authorities in the name of the sacred places they have been erected on, and are thus a weapon of the weak in their tactics for survival in the city. This ethnographic example holds an important theoretical connotation in terms of the emergence of a dynamic concept of the sacred by suggesting that the edge or boundary of the dominant ideological social space or the boundary between the legal and the illegal in its context embraces a potentiality of producing sacrality, as is suggested by Veikko Antonen’s rethinking of the notion of sacred from the viewpoint of cognitive categorization.

Chapter 16
Producing Meanings in the Street: the Semantics of Street Culture in Abidjan
SUZUKI, Hiroyuki (Kokushikan University) 
The street culture created in Abidjan, capital city of the Ivory Coast, is analyzed semantically in this paper. In the street, which is a social closed field, street boys live in a universe filled with meanings understood only between them. In this universe, the slang spoken by the street boys segmentalizes their realities, giving them a street sensibility and systematizing the cosmology of the street. This process will be analyzed specifically in relation to the boys’ system of human classification and their spatial perception. After this I analyze the relationship between the value system created on the street and the concrete actions of the street boys by using the analytical concept of langue and parole. Lastly I examine the mechanism of producing meaning in the street by using the analytical concept of bricolage, and point out that street culture is the product of the street boys’ intellectual activity.

Chapter 17
From Street Slang to a Linguistic Tool of Propaganda: The ‘Street-ness’ of the Sheng Language
KOMMA, Toru (Kanagawa University)
Sheng is a new mixed language, born on the streets of Nairobi, Kenya within the last few decades. It is syntactically based on Swahili and derives its lexicon from all the languages spoken in Kenya, mostly English and Kenyan vernaculars. In the early days, Sheng tended to be dismissed as mere slang used by Nairobi street children. Later, the emergence of an elite version of the language (Engsh, an anagram of Sheng) promoted it to the rank of an identity marker for students. The liberalization of FM radio in the 1990s drastically heightened its popularity, to the extent that Sheng rapidly began to filter into the national consciousness. Hence Sheng was selected as the linguistic tool of political propaganda, notably in the nationwide anti-AIDS campaign. The Kenyan Government, however, came to see Sheng as a serious threat to the two official languages (English and Swahili), and allegedly took steps to suppress Sheng. Recently, probably as a result of government disapproval, the frequency of Sheng usage on air has been reduced significantly. On the other hand, prominent Kenyan companies, both local and international, have started to use Sheng in advertising, and this has elevated Sheng’s commercial importance in the era of globalization.

Chapter 18
The Street and Collective Violence: With Special Reference to Post-election Violence in Kenya 2007-2008
MATSUDA, Motoji (University of Kyoto)
This study considers how emergent communality can be created in the process of street violence, focusing on post-election violence in Kenya in 2007-2008. Kenya suffered from serious episodes of ethnic violence in the 1990s, especially in Rift Valley province. It caused several thousand deaths and 500,000 IDPs (internally displaced persons). These conflicts took place in rural areas and the distinction of perpetrator and victim was clear and absolute. On the other hand, the post-election violence of 2007-2008 was observed mainly on city streets, and the roles of perpetrator and victim were not fixed but interchangeable. Interviews with riot-participants in Nairobi focused on communal consciousness and social norms that emerged through the process of violence. Urban anthropological studies of the 1980s and ‘90s showed that ‘traditional’ ethnic and cultural identities were the main forces binding together communities, but those forces were unable to prevent this round of post-election violence. Ethnicity appears to have been the main factor in the post-electoral violence, but it was disguised as ‘natural animosity.’ While the riot-participants spoke openly of their ‘tribal’ identity to legitimize their violence, they were in fact reorganizing themselves into ad-hoc groupings irrespective of ethnicity or cultural tradition. This process is creating or recreating an emergent communality, which has the potential to be mobilized to confront the state’s power to control the streets.

An Anthropology of the Street Vol.2 (Senri Ethnological Reports 81)

Chapter 19
The Relationship between Community and Street viewed Historically: the Case of Hakata
TAKEZAWA, Shōichirō (National Museum of Ethnology)
The aim of this article is to reconsider the relationship between community and street through a case study of Hakata, a major port city in northern Kyushu. Facing the Korean peninsula, Hakata is one of the oldest cities in Japan. Distanced from political power, it developed during the Edo era as a city of merchants and manufacturers. The smallest unit of Hakata was the chō, composed of about thirty houses (about 250 people). It functioned as a social and religious unit, controlling family registers, collecting taxes, maintaining streets, bridges, wells, drains etc. One of its most important tasks was to organize annual festivals, called Hakata Gion Yamakasa, constructing beautifully decorated floats (dashi) to parade through the streets of the whole city. During the festival, participants ate, drank and discussed civic affairs on the street. Far from being the opposite of the community, the street constituted an essential part of it. The city festivals were conceptualized as ways of drawing social and economic resources into the city from the surrounding areas. The more spectacular they were, the more spectators would come to Hakata and spend money.
After the Meiji Restoration, the central government began to control collective popular activities. Now it was not the local community but the government that maintained the streets. The city festivals were prohibited on the pretext of wastefulness and savagery. Ten years later, the festivals reopened. But the local community had already lost its dynamism.

Chapter 20
The Street as a Changing Social Arena in Medieval Europe
Harald Kleinschmidt (Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba)
This paper positions the street as a changing social arena and traces the changes of the perception of street from venues of communication, transportation and exchange to habitats with thinned-out security regimes in medieval and early Modern Europe. While cities may actually have been safer and better ordered places during the Middle Ages up to the fifteenth century than at any later time, it is difficult to specify just how wide the gap was. By contrast it is far easier to determine the change of the perception of the relative success or failure of security provision through rulers and governments. As the perception of the security gap between cities and the countryside waned and cities opened themselves to the countryside from the fifteenth century, parts of cities became recognized as theatres into which the subcultures of beggars, vagrants and petty criminals could sneak. The larger the cities grew, the less capable became the authorities to register the city’s inhabitants, monitor their doings, enforce law and maintain order. As a consequence, the gap widened between the demand for security resulting from the predominant contractualist theory of legitimacy of government on the one side and, on the other, the perception that rulers and governments were becoming less successful in providing security.

Chapter 21
On a Little Bridge in Beijing: The Global History of the Street Corner
SEO, Tatsuhiko (Chuo University)
The aim of this paper is to locate the history of bridges in mainland China within the megatrends of human history, using the case of Ginjōkyō (銀錠橋), a small bridge in Beijing, as an analytical case study. Bridges symbolize the history of streets and the function and symbolism of bridges will change with the transformation of global perception. Bridges, as permanent structures, made their appearance along with the birth of the city and the state. As well as securing the smooth flow of goods and information, they also became sacred sites mediating between the human, natural and supernatural worlds. However, the great movements of pastoral people from the 4th to 7th centuries a.d. brought great changes in world religions: individualism started to emerge, making the human world increasingly independent from its environment. The sacred character of bridges weakened and instead they became increasingly associated with leisure. The Ginjōkyō, first built under the Ming dynasty in the early 15th century, not only reflected urbanization and changes in public mores: it also reflected the attempt to turn a Mongol pastoral city into the kind of horticultural city favored by the Jiangnan people (江南人). Building beautiful bridges and gardens neatly satisfied the desire of the people for a beautiful environment and that of the political leadership to expunge all traces of the Mongol dynasty. Here we may perceive the first steps toward a modern state founded on the culture of the common people. Moreover, modern bridges, with their memories of their old function of bridging the gap between sacred and profane in pre-modern times, will lead the way towards the postmodern world.

Chapter 22
Wholesale Markets Past and Present: a Case Study of the Transition of ‘Placeness’ in a Local Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products in Nagaoka City
SUZUKI, Shinsuke (National Museum of Ethnology)
In this paper, I examine the transition in meaning and nature of ‘place’ in a wholesale market of fruit and vegetables in Japan. Wholesale agricultural markets used to play a crucial role in maintaining a smoothly functioning, government-regulated supply network. In recent years, however, the relative oversupply of products, primarily caused by dwindling demand, and the rise in the proportion of transactions outside the market, have made the process of distribution far more complex. Far less actual dealing now takes place in markets. A case study of a market in Nagaoka City (Niigata prefecture) shows that seri, the traditional face-to-face auction, has practically been abandoned, with wholesalers trying instead to resell their surpluses to other wholesalers in remote areas. Elderly people associated with the market often tell stories of ‘the good old days’ when there was still something that might be called a ‘market place’ in the sense used by Theodor Bestor in his book on Tsukiji fish market (Bestor 2004). The market place was robust with human relations and trade. In contrast, nowadays, the movement of agricultural products, along with changes in supply and demand, and improvements in information technology and transportation, is opening up a new space for trading that does not require a specific ‘market place.’

Chapter 23
The Street as Contested Space for Emerging Locality: A Case Study of Tree Ceremonies in Southern Germany
YAMADA, Kaori (National Museum of Ethnology)
The Maypole – a tall pole fashioned from a tree-trunk, decorated with ribbons and danced around on May 1 – is a famous traditional custom in western Europe, notably in the German language area. It is thought to date from before the evolution of Christianity and is very much alive today. Maypoles are typically set up in the street, there to be admired by the local community. They are an article of civic pride, and sometimes of conflict between rival communities. Town A, in the vicinity of Munich, where I did my fieldwork, experienced a feud when two parts of the town came into conflict in the 1950s. It began with a dispute over possession of a maypole and took 20 years to reach a peace. In this paper I describe the custom of the maypole, trace the process from conflict to peace, and analyze the change of the concerned parties’ interpretation of this event. I argue that the maypole in this incident became a focus for disputation over the meaning of the street as a public space.

Chapter 24
The Conflict over Seascapes in the Torres Strait, Australia: Between Aboriginal People’s Sense of Place and the Authorities’ Sense of Legitimacy
MATSUMOTO, Hiroyuki (Nara Women’s University)
The problem of ‘streetness’ goes beyond the enlightened humanism of western-style modernity, and it seeks to reconsider the restoration of rights to places where people can live. One of the troublesome inheritances of western-style modernization has been the history of colonialism and its creation of ‘aboriginal’ peoples. Enlightened humanism is not a universal ethic, but merely one local style of thought. Between the first world colonizers who founded their states on enlightened humanism, and the fourth world aborigines who are internalized by it, there is a conflict that goes beyond economic interests to a conceptual level at which the aborigines’ sense of justice founded on place confronts the colonial authorities’ more abstract sense of legitimacy, giving birth to the postcolonial condition. There is a great gap in geographical imaginative power between the cultural quality of the aboriginal sense of place and the legitimacy of the western-style modern nation-state. Unless the authorities can get away from enlightened humanism, that lodestone of western-style modernization, and gain an awareness of the aboriginal perspective based on a sense of place that is the original form of human nature, there is no way to open up the road to a peaceful reconciliation between the first world and the fourth world.

Chapter 25
Street and Stream: Some Notes Towards a Study of Street Phenomena in Polynesia TANAHASHI, Satoshi (Ochanomizu University)
Ever since the 19th century era of colonial rule, the islands of Polynesia have been objectified by outsiders as an isolated, fragmented and remote world at the extreme periphery of world capitalism. On the other hand, Polynesians themselves see the history of their islands as a long process of streaming and seafaring connections. This concept has played a significant role in restoring Polynesian dignity in anti-colonial cultural renaissance movements since the 1970s. At the same time, tens of thousands of Polynesians have moved to Pacific Rim cities such as Auckland, Sydney, Honolulu or Los Angeles as migrant laborers. Although life overseas has never been easy for Polynesian migrant laborers, many have successfully settled down in host societies in the last five decades, while contributing enormously to supporting homeland economies through remittances and opening up a new dual life style based on the homeland and migratory destinations. Migrants understand themselves as following in the seafaring traditions of their ancestors, laying their experiences on top of the conventional historical recognition of streaming. To them, the roads on their home islands are directly connected to the streets of the metropolises where they work, forming a single stream of Polynesian history.

Chapter 26
Construction of “Recombinant Locality” as a ‘Lived place’ among South Asian Migrants in Hawaii: Bricolage between Packaging (Capital) and De-packaging (Resources)
SEKINE, Yasumasa (Japan Women’s University)
The liquidity of contemporary society requires people to have ‘street wisdom’ for their survival. One invaluable stock of such street wisdom has historically been accumulated by the desperate efforts of diasporan migrants. However, the ‘society of flow’ that has emerged since the 1990s requires not only de-territorialized migrants and refugees but also ordinary sedentary people to acquire street wisdom. In that sense, street dwellers and migrants might be regarded as the forerunners of our present society. In this paper, I seek to identify street wisdom through the new arrangements (or bricolage) of things in the torn situation of socially repressed places, which I define broadly as ‘street’ as opposed to ‘home.’ I analyze the shift of viewpoint from capital to resource, with special reference to the case of construction of a religious centre among South Asian migrants in Hawaii. People today are surrounded by packaged things, i.e., the commodities produced by ‘packaging from above’ or the neo-liberalist global capitalism, and the socio-cultural setting in which migrants live can be understood as a busy intersection where various packaged things intensely coexist and compete. However, migrants actively appropriate ‘packaging from above’ in order to (re-)construct their own place in a foreign country. Their tactic of bricolage or ‘packaging from below’, provides us with a clue to the kind of street wisdom we need to survive in the contemporary liquid world associated with reflexive modernization.

Chapter 27
From Chinatown to Global City: The Papua New Guinean Chinese Experience of Streets in Rabaul, Port Moresby and Sydney
ICHIKAWA, Tetsu (The Asian Institute of Intellectual Collaboration, Rikkyo University)
Although migration is often regarded as a representative phenomenon of transnationalism, transnational migrants do not spend all of their lives on the move. The immigrants lead most of their lives in particular places, within nation states. Therefore we cannot ignore the particularities of immigrants’ destinations if we hope to understand their life worlds. That is the perspective this paper will adopt in discussing the characteristics of migration and locality of Papua New Guinean Chinese. Chinese migrants started to arrive in New Guinea in the late 19th century, establishing communities in some cities and towns in northeastern New Guinea. Their biggest community was at Rabaul, where they congregated in a Chinatown. After 1960 a new wave of Chinese arrived at Port Moresby, on the southeast coast of New Guinea. In the run-up to Papua New Guinea’s achievement of independence from Australia in 1975, most of the Chinese re-migrated to Australia, especially Sydney and Brisbane. To understand the nature of their re-migration, this paper analyzes the Papua New Guinean Chinese experience in three cities: Rabaul, Port Moresby and Sydney. These cities’ streets all have different characteristics, so this paper discusses how the transnational activities of Papua New Guinean Chinese are influenced by their experience in the streets of the three cities.

Chapter 28
“Ethnic Town” and Street: The case of “Cambodia Town” in Los Angeles County
ASAHI, Yumiko (Institute of Asian Cultures, Sophia University)
The dilution of the connection between a place and humans, especially in an urban society, under modernization and globalization has often been pointed out. Against this phenomenon, in many parts of the world, people are attempting to reconstruct or produce these ties through such means as traditional festivals, religion, and ethnicity. In a global city like Los Angeles, there are many ethnic minority communities, and some of the places have been officially recognized as “ethnic towns” – for example, China Town, Korea Town and Little Tokyo. Here I introduce the case of “Cambodia Town”, a district in the center of Long Beach, Los Angeles County, newly designated on July 3, 2007 by the city council, to see how it may become ‘home’ to one of LA’s more recent ethnic minorities. The official naming was done at the request of Cambodian community leaders, who hoped thereby to instill pride in their community and overcome inter-ethnic community conflicts (mainly with the large Latino population in the area) and among Cambodian-Americans themselves. I will look at the dangers and opportunities inherent in this strategy.

Chapter 29
Streets Connected to the Place of Daily Life: Café Life among Tunisians in Paris
UEMURA, Sayaka (Tokyo International University)
This paper focuses on the frequenting of cafés by Tunisian migrants in Paris, showing how the street is connected to the place of daily life. Paris, a global city, is a historical destination for Tunisians and also a kind of crossroads, where they stop, stay, and/or leave. In Paris, they often go to cafés on their own, and go from café to café. They enjoy the multiple elements of the varied environments they find in each of these places. Through the constant repetition of these practices, each person develops social technique and social networks. They not only spend time at the café as customers, but also watch people there or observe the café itself so that they can collect ideas about trade, exchange, new business and so forth. They also develop plural give-and-take relations which are not mediated by capital. These practices create a trans-spatial linkage of multiple elements in various cafés and networks and bring tiny but incremental changes to the street.

Chapter 30
The Post-Socialist Street: The New Urban Transformation in Ulaanbaatar City, Mongolia
NISHIGAKI, Yu (Osaka University Graduate School of Human Sciences)
This paper examines urban street life in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, during the transition from the socialist to the post-socialist era, especially after the rapid privatization of state enterprises in the 1990s, in an attempt to elucidate the modality of the post-socialist era. Actually, the street has diverse modalities. In this paper I discuss not only the post-socialist modality, but also the pre-socialist and socialist modality of the street, in order to elucidate the specific characteristics of the post-socialist street modality. In the first part of this paper, I introduce the history of Ulaanbaatar in the 19th and 20th centuries, and examine the transition process from pre-socialist to socialist modality of the street. In the second part, I focus on the appearance of the post-socialist modality of the street in the privatization process that started towards the end of the 20th century and still continues today.

Chapter 31
A Sub-culture Becoming High-cultural? Popular Music and Street Culture in Post-socialist Mongolia
SHIMAMURA, Ippei (Shiga Prefectural University)
Musical genres like rock and hip-hop were originally born as subcultures of countries like the USA and UK, countries at the center of world affairs. This paper looks at the ways in which these subcultures have been adopted at the global fringes, using post-socialist Mongolia as a case study. In Mongolia, rock and pop music are taught on the state school curriculum, and musicians enjoy high status, often performing at election rallies etc. On the other hand, their lyrics may include criticism of the government or denunciation of foreigners, showing that Mongolian popular music cannot easily be slotted into a dichotomy between high culture and subculture. Rather, it needs to be studied in relation to the concept of culture that developed during the socialist years. The paper also shows how the street, where rock and pop were born, has been brought indoors in Mongolia, an inevitable development perhaps in a very cold country. During the socialist era this internalized street was not located in party-sanctioned places like theatres and clubs, but rather in the communal lobby areas of giant housing projects, where youths would gather informally to play their guitars and chat. This way of using indoor public space can probably be traced back to the ger, tents used in Mongolia’s traditional pastoralist society that served as dwellings and thus as private space, but also had a public/communal aspect to them as social nodes where people would gather rather freely.

Chapter 32
Some Preliminary Thoughts on the Street as Viewed from “Hinterland Theory”
ABE, Toshiharu (Saitama University)
The street, or something like it, has doubtless existed since the dawn of human history. Fresh footmarks in the undergrowth of a tropical rain forest around a hunters’ camp; the narrow paths linking villages in the savannah; the streets of settlements in a high-level consumer society; even the sea-front wharf of a tiny coral island community where people pass the time together – all have something of the street about them. Without some kind of street-space, as Tetsuro Watsuji observes, humans themselves could not exist. This paper starts far away from the contemporary city, looking at the co-residential groupings that form the foundation of grass-roots human society to recreate the fundamental ‘street experience’ out of the resonances between the many kinds of street to be found across time and space. We find that even in the contemporary city, apparently dominated by modern systems such as the state, market economy and technology, the pulse of the street is still alive. The street is always ‘in the vanguard.’ At the same time, however, it is the nearest to us of all our living spaces. So to ask what is going on in the street is to question radically the nature of the world in which we live. This paper, admittedly preliminary and speculative, proposes a hypothetical model of the street, one that looks at world history from the perspective of the hinterland, which it then uses to investigate the street in contemporary society.

Chapter 33
Reclaiming the Streets as Spaces of Everyday Life
ODA, Makoto (Seijo University Faculty of Arts and Literature)
Some say that streets are the sites of encounters with others, where people get freed from the order of daily life. Others retort that far from being sites of liberation, streets are places dominated by capital and dedicated to the transportation and consumption of goods. But neither of these opposing views applied to the streets of pre-19th century Paris, which were places of daily life where people formed close personal associations that found expression in either riots or festivities. Since the 19th century, the streets of cities such as Paris have lost their role as places of daily life and have been changed into tame spectacles of commodities. This change produced the romantic and nostalgic vision of the streets as places that freed people from the order of daily life. Present-day activism to ‘reclaim the streets’ seeks to make the streets places of daily life again, but has done no more than turn them into temporary places of encounter and liberation, divorced from daily life. This paper aims to reclaim the concept of the streets as places of daily life, characterized not by spectacles of commodities but by heterogeneity. For this purpose, we should focus on the plurality and excess of human relations in daily life. In authentic societies, as defined by Lévi-Strauss, this plurality and excess turns the streets from ‘striated space’ for the police and spectacles of commodities for the public into ‘smooth space.’

Chapter 34
Conclusions: “Street Anthropology” Questing for a Critical Ethnography
SEKINE, Yasumasa
Contemporary anthropology in the post-Fordist society marked by pervasive social control should target the social periphery as the frontier of anthropology today. Such a peripheral life world, holding relatively little power of self-reference, is crying out for deep interpretation by which the life world could be conveyed as a creative art work. In other words, the potential dimension of the life world would be disclosed by such an act of criticism – criticism in the sense intended by Walter Benjamin in his concepts of ‘art criticism’ and ‘an awakened history’. In this regard, it is Street Anthropology that most exactly pursues the task of contemporary anthropology.

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